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Table of Contents
Hybrid Lagoon System
Case Study
Applications Proposals

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Hybrid Lagoon System Technical note (1)

The Booking 1986
The Internet version 2000
Hiroshi Kishi
Rural Environment Research Association


The securement of a source of clean water is a necessary condition for the maintenance of human life, and history demonstrates it to be of fundamental importance for the formation of urban communities and the development of culture. However, only in recent years has it become apparent that, once used by man, unclean water may give rise to epidemics or wreak havoc on the environment, which we need to survive? It is also only recently that we have learned that microorganisms have, over a period of three billion years, been responsible for formation of the atmosphere, generation of the organic material in the soil, and production of clean water, all from the inorganic matter of the primitive earth. Hence microorganisms have played a major role in the emergence of today's world, temperate and teeming with life.

Having learned through experience that microorganisms in water and clinging to dirt and rocks act to cleanse water soiled by other living organisms, human beings at last had the idea of scientifically applying this action of microbes, and after much trial and error built up the present science of sanitation and constructed systems for treatment of waste water. Still, a number of problems remain, and society has imposed new demands, relating to advanced energy-efficient processing (denitrification, dephosphorization) and automatic control of current wastewater processing systems.

In light of this, it is my sincere hope that this manual on LLSB activated sludge treatment, which offers exceptional features and performance even while requiring only simple facilities, will promote a deeper understanding by the reader of today's technology for waste- water treatment, and enable a clear grasp both of current problems and of future solutions.

Table of Contents


    1. Origins of the Activated Sludge Treatment Method.
    2. Basic Construction of Facilities and Principle of Operation of the Activated Sludge Treatment Method (1): Method of Continuous Operation.
    3. Basic Construction of Facilities and Principle of Operation of the Activated Sludge Treatment Method (2): Method of non-continuous Operation.[SBR]
    4. Characteristics and Functions of Microorganisms.(1) General Characteristics;
    5. Characteristics and Functions of Microorganisms (2) Denitrification Functions.
    6. Survey of LLSB Activated Sludge Treatment Functions, 1974-1976.

Hybrid Lagoon System

    7. Principle
    8. How to Operation
    9. Basin Construction cross-section, Lateral Section).
    10. Water Interception and Excavation without Timbering.
    11. Water Flow Model and Stirring Characteristics.
    12. The Hybrid Aerators System.
    13. Automatic Control System(1) Hard wear.
    14. Automatic Control System (2) Waves analysis and allosteric effect.
    15. Distributed Processing and Centralized Control Systems.
    16. Development of Hybrid Lagoon Technology and Comparison of systems..

Case Study

    17. Hybrid Lagoon Evaluation (1): Denitrification Tests 1983.
    18. Hybrid Lagoon Evaluation (2): Sewage Treatment Facilities, BCJ-57-551.1983.
    19. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (1): Meat processing wastewater plant, from 1981.
    20. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (2): Household wastewater plant, from 1981.
    21. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (3): Cattle breeding wastewater Denitrification Treatment plant from 1985.
    22. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (4): 10kliters Human Waste, from l985.
    23. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (5): 50kliters Human Waste, from l982.
    24. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (6): Waste from Agricultural Community, from 1986.
    25. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (7): Starch Waste Water, from 1986.
    26. Hybrid Lagoon Performance (8): Noodle Processing wastewater from 1985.

Applications Proposals

    27. Future Plans. for Environmental Protection. (1):Plans for Multifunctional Public Sewage Systems.
    28. Future Plans for Environmental Protection. (2):From Facilities for Human Waste Processing to Sewage Treatment Facilities.(600 kliters/day, 40,500 m3/day)

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